O Brasil é o 2º maior produtor e consumidor de biodiesel do mundo, ficando atrás somente dos Estados Unidos. De acordo com a Agência Nacional de Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis  (ANP), cerca de 82% da produção do nosso país é derivada da soja, cultura a qual o Brasil é, também, o maior produtor em todo o planeta.

 

O que são os biocombustíveis

O biodiesel proveniente da soja é um dos principais produtos chamados de biocombustíveis. Isto é, combustíveis obtidos a partir de biomassa vegetal ou animal, que são matérias-primas não minerais. Além do biodiesel, temos como destaque o etanol e o biogás.

Diferentemente dos combustíveis fósseis, comumente derivados do petróleo, os biocombustíveis são fontes de energia renováveis, uma vez que as matérias-primas utilizadas para a produção destes não apresentam escassez – como os grãos e a gordura animal.

 

Potencial econômico

Na atual safra, conforme dados da Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (Conab), o Brasil irá colher cerca de 150 milhões de toneladas de soja, o que simboliza um imenso potencial brasileiro no setor de combustíveis renováveis. 

Além de ser o maior expoente sojícola do globo, o Brasil conta com uma produção altamente tecnológica de soja, o que, por si só, agrega valor a qualquer beneficiamento do grão, incluindo a extração de óleo para produção do biodiesel.

Nesse sentido, o mercado de biocombustíveis impulsiona ainda mais a rentabilidade da soja, já que segundo a Abiove (Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Óleos Vegetais), com o esmagamento para a fabricação de biodiesel, 20% dos grãos são transformados em óleo e 80% viram farelo, outro subproduto muito importante comercialmente, já que é utilizado como base da pecuária na alimentação do gado.

Ainda no tocante da economia, vale lembrar que a produção de biocombustíveis gera novos empregos, potencializa o desenvolvimento de tecnologias e fortalece todo o país, uma vez que estar à frente da produção em larga escala de combustíveis é, historicamente, um poder estratégico de diversos países ao redor do mundo – principalmente quando falamos de energia renovável, um tema cada vez mais urgente globalmente.

 

Benefícios ao meio ambiente

Os benefícios ambientais são os principais pontos fortes dos biocombustíveis. Como pontua a Embrapa, os combustíveis de origem vegetal consomem grande parte do dióxido de carbono (proveniente da sua posterior queima) durante o crescimento das lavouras. Ou seja, há um balanço compensatório de CO2 entre produção e uso.

Falando especificamente do biodiesel de soja, de acordo com a Petrobras, há ainda a diminuição de 15% nas emissões de GEE, em relação aos combustíveis fósseis. Os GEE são os gases de efeito estufa, associados ao aquecimento global e às mudanças climáticas agravadas pela poluição atmosférica.

 

O atual cenário dos biocombustíveis

Na última década, a produção mundial de biocombustíveis cresceu mais de 10 vezes, de acordo com Agência Internacional de Energia (IEA). Em 2019, foram produzidos, em média, 2,7 milhões de barris por dia, sendo cerca de 710 mil somente no Brasil.

Até o ano de 2026, a IEA estima que a produção global avance aproximadamente 6,8%. No nosso país, no entanto, deve crescer de forma ainda mais acelerada: 11,7%.

No momento, uma questão decisiva para o avanço do biodiesel de soja no Brasil diz respeito à mistura obrigatória ao diesel fóssil. Ao longo de todo o ano de 2022, o combustível deveria conter 10% do biocombustível em sua composição, conforme resolução do Conselho Nacional de Política Energética (CNPE). 

No Brasil, mais de 70% do biodiesel misturado ao diesel é oriundo da soja.

Para o ano de 2023, diversos produtores e órgãos do setor previam e esperavam o aumento deste percentual para 15%. De acordo com a Aprobio (Associação dos Produtores de Biocombustíveis do Brasil), esse incremento aumentaria a demanda de soja no Brasil para produção de óleo em 51%.

No entanto, para o primeiro semestre do próximo ano, o teor permanecerá em 10%, como definiu o CNPE. Depois de março, o número poderá ou não subir – fique de olho em nossos canais para conferir as atualizações.

 

Saiba mais sobre o universo da soja

Acompanhe a Neogen em todos os canais digitais e fique por dentro de dicas, novidades e inovações. Siga no Facebook, Instagram e YouTube

 

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