A ferrugem-asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) é a mais severa das doenças que afetam a cultura da soja. De acordo com a Embrapa, ela é tão rigorosa que pode causar até 90% de perdas na lavoura, se não controlada.

Dados do Consórcio Antiferrugem, idealizado pela Embrapa Soja, mostram que nas últimas cinco safras a média de casos no Brasil foi de 33. Contudo, no ciclo de 2023/2024, o número já chega a 111, apresentando um aumento significativo de 234%, já sendo considerada por muitos a safra em que os produtores mais enfrentaram os desafios da doença.

Os profissionais responsáveis pelas estatísticas explicam que esse aumento aconteceu, principalmente, pelo fato de o inverno na região Sul ter sido menos rigoroso, favorecendo o surgimento da soja voluntária já com inóculos do fungo, aliado a um clima favorável no verão para o desenvolvimento da doença.

 

Danos causados pela ferrugem-asiática

 

A infecção pela Phakopsora pachyrhizi, segundo a Embrapa, causa, inicialmente, “lesões pequenas, de aspecto encharcado, que gradualmente aumentam em tamanho, tornando-se cinzas a castanhas ou marrons”. Essas lesões aparecem mais comumente nas folhas, principalmente na superfície inferior, mas também podem ser percebidas nos pecíolos, nas vagens e nos ramos.

 

Como a doença se estabelece

 

Para que a doença seja introduzida, três fatores são primordiais: hospedeiro, patógeno e ambiente.  Em relação ao ambiente, ela depende da disponibilidade de água na superfície foliar e temperaturas amenas, que variam entre 15ºC e 25ºC. 

Nestas condições, chamadas de ideais, a infecção acontece no período de 6 horas após a deposição do esporo

 

Técnicas de combate

 

Por ser capaz de se adaptar às mais diversas estratégias de controle fitossanitárias, a ferrugem-asiática é um dos principais desafios enfrentados pelos sojicultores, que devem seguir algumas recomendações como forma de prevenção e controle. Abaixo, confira as 5 técnicas mais atuais para combater a ferrugem-asiática

  1. O vazio sanitário é uma das medidas fitossanitárias previstas no Programa Nacional de Controle da Ferrugem Asiática da Soja (PNCFS), do Governo Federal. Trata-se de um período, de pelo menos 90 dias, com ausência de semeadura e remoção de plantas voluntárias, para que ocorra a redução do inóculo. 
  1. O controle químico, através do uso de fungicidas, é outra estratégia recomendada sobretudo de forma preventiva. De acordo com uma publicação da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), quando a aplicação for realizada como forma de prevenção, alguns fatores devem ser considerados, tais como: presença do fungo na região, idade da planta, condições climáticas favoráveis, tamanho da propriedade, equipamentos disponíveis, custos do controle e existência de outras doenças.
  1. Já o método de escape ou evasão consiste em semear cultivares de ciclo precoce no início da época recomendada. Tal ação foca na prevenção pela fuga em relação ao patógeno e/ou condições ambientais favoráveis ao seu desenvolvimento. 
  1. Uma tecnologia desenvolvida pelo Instituto de Desenvolvimento Rural do Paraná (IDR-Paraná) tem se mostrado eficiente no combate à ferrugem-asiática. Chamado de coletor de esporos, o dispositivo detecta os uredósporos do fungo que circulam no ar, antes da manifestação dos sintomas nas plantas, facilitando o manejo da doença. Porém, o IDR-Paraná alerta que “é importante frisar que o coletor de esporos é uma ferramenta a mais para a tomada de decisão sobre a aplicação de fungicidas, que deve levar em conta também o estádio da cultura e as condições climáticas”.
  1. O uso de cultivares mais tolerantes, como é o caso da NEO620 IPRO NP, com a tecnologia NeoProtection variedade exclusiva da Neogen, recomendada para a região Sul, que protege a soja contra a ferrugem-asiática e a Podridão Radicular de Phytophthora —, é uma alternativa altamente eficaz. Essa tecnologia confere uma “defesa” mais robusta da planta em relação ao fungo, deixando-a menos suscetível a perdas de produtividade, além de ser importante na redução da pressão de seleção para a resistência do fungo aos fungicidas. 

Para que o controle da ferrugem-asiática seja plenamente estabelecido, é importante que haja uma integração entre as práticas apresentadas. Fazer preventivamente os ajustes necessários para o manejo é fundamental para que as pragas não desenvolvam resistência. Ao tomar esses cuidados, o produtor pode alcançar bons números em produtividade e rentabilidade, tanto nesta safra quanto nas futuras.  

 

Gostou dessas dicas? Clique aqui e confira outros artigos sobre o universo da soja! Veja também os nossos conteúdos exclusivos no Instagram, Facebook e YouTube.

Para encontrar a semente ideal para a sua área, acesse o portfólio 2024/2025 da Neogen.

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